基于Keras的LSTM多变量时间序列预测(北京PM2.5数据集pollution.csv)

                             基于Keras的LSTM多变量时间序列预测

  传统的线性模型难以解决多变量或多输入问题,而神经网络如LSTM则擅长于处理多个变量的问题,该特性使其有助于解决时间序列预测问题。 
   
  在接下来的这篇博客中,你将学会如何利用深度学习库Keras搭建LSTM模型来处理多个变量的时间序列预测问题。 
  经过这个博客你会掌握: 
  1. 如何将原始数据转化为适合处理时序预测问题的数据格式; 
  2. 如何准备数据并搭建LSTM来处理时序预测问题; 
  3. 如何利用模型预测。 

1.空气污染预测

  在这篇博客中,我们将采用空气质量数据集。数据来源自位于北京的美国大使馆在2010年至2014年共5年间每小时采集的天气及空气污染指数。 
  数据集包括日期、PM2.5浓度、露点、温度、风向、风速、累积小时雪量和累积小时雨量。原始数据中完整的特征如下: 

1.No 行数
2.year 年
3.month 月
4.day 日
5.hour 小时
6.pm2.5 PM2.5浓度
7.DEWP 露点
8.TEMP 温度
9.PRES 大气压
10.cbwd 风向
11.lws 风速
12.ls 累积雪量
13.lr 累积雨量

  我们可以利用此数据集搭建预测模型,利用前一个或几个小时的天气条件和污染数据预测下一个(当前)时刻的污染程度。 
   
  可以在UCI Machine Learning Repository下载数据集。 
  Beijing PM2.5 Data Set

2.数据处理

  在使用数据之前需要对数据做一些处理,待处理部分数据如下:

No,year,month,day,hour,pm2.5,DEWP,TEMP,PRES,cbwd,Iws,Is,Ir
1,2010,1,1,0,NA,-21,-11,1021,NW,1.79,0,0
2,2010,1,1,1,NA,-21,-12,1020,NW,4.92,0,0
3,2010,1,1,2,NA,-21,-11,1019,NW,6.71,0,0
4,2010,1,1,3,NA,-21,-14,1019,NW,9.84,0,0
5,2010,1,1,4,NA,-20,-12,1018,NW,12.97,0,0

  粗略的观察数据集会发现最开始的24小时PM2.5值都是NA,因此需要删除这部分数据,对于其他时刻少量的缺省值利用Pandas中的fillna填充;同时需要整合日期数据,使其作为Pandas中索引(index)。 
  下面的代码完成了以上的处理过程,同时去掉了原始数据中“No”列,并将列命名为更清晰的名字。

from pandas import read_csv
from datetime import datetime
# load data
def parse(x):
    return datetime.strptime(x, '%Y %m %d %H')
dataset = read_csv('raw.csv',  parse_dates = [['year', 'month', 'day', 'hour']], index_col=0, date_parser=parse)
dataset.drop('No', axis=1, inplace=True)
# manually specify column names
dataset.columns = ['pollution', 'dew', 'temp', 'press', 'wnd_dir', 'wnd_spd', 'snow', 'rain']
dataset.index.name = 'date'
# mark all NA values with 0
dataset['pollution'].fillna(0, inplace=True)
# drop the first 24 hours
dataset = dataset[24:]
# summarize first 5 rows
print(dataset.head(5))
# save to file
dataset.to_csv('pollution.csv')

  处理后的数据存储在“pollution.csv”文件中,部分如下:

                     pollution  dew  temp   press wnd_dir  wnd_spd  snow  rain
date
2010-01-02 00:00:00      129.0  -16  -4.0  1020.0      SE     1.79     0     0
2010-01-02 01:00:00      148.0  -15  -4.0  1020.0      SE     2.68     0     0
2010-01-02 02:00:00      159.0  -11  -5.0  1021.0      SE     3.57     0     0
2010-01-02 03:00:00      181.0   -7  -5.0  1022.0      SE     5.36     1     0
2010-01-02 04:00:00      138.0   -7  -5.0  1022.0      SE     6.25     2     0

  现在的数据格式已经更加适合处理,可以简单的对每列进行绘图。下面的代码加载了“pollution.csv”文件,并对除了类别型特性“风速”的每一列数据分别绘图。

from pandas import read_csv
from matplotlib import pyplot
# load dataset
dataset = read_csv('pollution.csv', header=0, index_col=0)
values = dataset.values
# specify columns to plot
groups = [0, 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 7]
i = 1
# plot each column
pyplot.figure()
for group in groups:
    pyplot.subplot(len(groups), 1, i)
    pyplot.plot(values[:, group])
    pyplot.title(dataset.columns[group], y=0.5, loc='right')
    i += 1
pyplot.show()

  运行上述代码,并对7个变量在5年的范围内绘图。 
                

3.多变量LSTM预测模型

3.1 LSTM数据准备

  采用LSTM模型时,第一步需要对数据进行适配处理,其中包括将数据集转化为有监督学习问题和归一化变量(包括输入和输出值),使其能够实现通过前一个时刻(t-1)的污染数据和天气条件预测当前时刻(t)的污染。 
   
  以上的处理方式很直接也比较简单,仅仅只是为了抛砖引玉,其他的处理方式也可以探索,比如: 
  1. 利用过去24小时的污染数据和天气条件预测当前时刻的污染; 
  2. 预测下一个时刻(t+1)可能的天气条件;
  下面代码中首先加载“pollution.csv”文件,并利用sklearn的预处理模块对类别特征“风向”进行编码,当然也可以对该特征进行one-hot编码。 接着对所有的特征进行归一化处理,然后将数据集转化为有监督学习问题,同时将需要预测的当前时刻(t)的天气条件特征移除,完整代码如下:

# convert series to supervised learning
def series_to_supervised(data, n_in=1, n_out=1, dropnan=True):
    n_vars = 1 if type(data) is list else data.shape[1]
    df = DataFrame(data)
    cols, names = list(), list()
    # input sequence (t-n, ... t-1)
    for i in range(n_in, 0, -1):
        cols.append(df.shift(i))
        names += [('var%d(t-%d)' % (j+1, i)) for j in range(n_vars)]
    # forecast sequence (t, t+1, ... t+n)
    for i in range(0, n_out):
        cols.append(df.shift(-i))
        if i == 0:
            names += [('var%d(t)' % (j+1)) for j in range(n_vars)]
        else:
            names += [('var%d(t+%d)' % (j+1, i)) for j in range(n_vars)]
    # put it all together
    agg = concat(cols, axis=1)
    agg.columns = names
    # drop rows with NaN values
    if dropnan:
        agg.dropna(inplace=True)
    return agg

# load dataset
dataset = read_csv('pollution.csv', header=0, index_col=0)
values = dataset.values
# integer encode direction
encoder = LabelEncoder()
values[:,4] = encoder.fit_transform(values[:,4])
# ensure all data is float
values = values.astype('float32')
# normalize features
scaler = MinMaxScaler(feature_range=(0, 1))
scaled = scaler.fit_transform(values)
# frame as supervised learning
reframed = series_to_supervised(scaled, 1, 1)
# drop columns we don't want to predict
reframed.drop(reframed.columns[[9,10,11,12,13,14,15]], axis=1, inplace=True)
print(reframed.head())

  运行上述代码,能看到被转化后的数据集,数据集包括8个输入变量(输入特征)和1个输出变量(当前时刻t的空气污染值,标签) 
  数据集的处理比较简单,还有很多的方式可以尝试,一些可以尝试的方向包括: 
  1. 对“风向”特征哑编码; 
  2. 加入季节特征; 
  3. 时间步长超过1。 
  其中,上述第三种方式对于处理时间序列问题的LSTM可能是最重要的。

3.2 构造模型

  在这一节,我们将构造LSTM模型。 
  首先,我们需要将处理后的数据集划分为训练集和测试集。为了加速模型的训练,我们仅利用第一年数据进行训练,然后利用剩下的4年进行评估。 
  下面的代码将数据集进行划分,然后将训练集和测试集划分为输入和输出变量,最终将输入(X)改造为LSTM的输入格式,即[samples,timesteps,features]。

# split into train and test sets
values = reframed.values
n_train_hours = 365 * 24
train = values[:n_train_hours, :]
test = values[n_train_hours:, :]
# split into input and outputs
train_X, train_y = train[:, :-1], train[:, -1]
test_X, test_y = test[:, :-1], test[:, -1]
# reshape input to be 3D [samples, timesteps, features]
train_X = train_X.reshape((train_X.shape[0], 1, train_X.shape[1]))
test_X = test_X.reshape((test_X.shape[0], 1, test_X.shape[1]))
print(train_X.shape, train_y.shape, test_X.shape, test_y.shape)
  • 、运行上述代码打印训练集和测试集的输入输出格式:
(8760, 1, 8) (8760,) (35039, 1, 8) (35039,)

  现在可以搭建LSTM模型了。 
  LSTM模型中,隐藏层有50个神经元,输出层1个神经元(回归问题),输入变量是一个时间步(t-1)的特征,损失函数采用Mean Absolute Error(MAE),优化算法采用Adam,模型采用50个epochs并且每个batch的大小为72。 
  最后,在fit()函数中设置validation_data参数,记录训练集和测试集的损失,并在完成训练和测试后绘制损失图。

# design network
model = Sequential()
model.add(LSTM(50, input_shape=(train_X.shape[1], train_X.shape[2])))
model.add(Dense(1))
model.compile(loss='mae', optimizer='adam')
# fit network
history = model.fit(train_X, train_y, epochs=50, batch_size=72, validation_data=(test_X, test_y), verbose=2, shuffle=False)
# plot history
pyplot.plot(history.history['loss'], label='train')
pyplot.plot(history.history['val_loss'], label='test')
pyplot.legend()
pyplot.show()

# design network
model = Sequential()
model.add(LSTM(50, input_shape=(train_X.shape[1], train_X.shape[2])))
model.add(Dense(1))
model.compile(loss='mae', optimizer='adam')
# fit network
history = model.fit(train_X, train_y, epochs=50, batch_size=72, validation_data=(test_X, test_y), verbose=2, shuffle=False)
# plot history
pyplot.plot(history.history['loss'], label='train')
pyplot.plot(history.history['val_loss'], label='test')
pyplot.legend()
pyplot.show()

3.3 模型评估

  接下里我们对模型效果进行评估。 
  值得注意的是:需要将预测结果和部分测试集数据组合然后进行比例反转(invert the scaling),同时也需要将测试集上的预期值也进行比例转换。 
  通过以上处理之后,再结合RMSE(均方根误差)计算损失。

# make a prediction
yhat = model.predict(test_X)
test_X = test_X.reshape((test_X.shape[0], test_X.shape[2]))
# invert scaling for forecast
inv_yhat = concatenate((yhat, test_X[:, 1:]), axis=1)
inv_yhat = scaler.inverse_transform(inv_yhat)
inv_yhat = inv_yhat[:,0]
# invert scaling for actual
test_y = test_y.reshape((len(test_y), 1))
inv_y = concatenate((test_y, test_X[:, 1:]), axis=1)
inv_y = scaler.inverse_transform(inv_y)
inv_y = inv_y[:,0]
# calculate RMSE
rmse = sqrt(mean_squared_error(inv_y, inv_yhat))
print('Test RMSE: %.3f' % rmse)

        整个项目完整代码如下:

from math import sqrt
from numpy import concatenate
from matplotlib import pyplot
from pandas import read_csv
from pandas import DataFrame
from pandas import concat
from sklearn.preprocessing import MinMaxScaler
from sklearn.preprocessing import LabelEncoder
from sklearn.metrics import mean_squared_error
from keras.models import Sequential
from keras.layers import Dense
from keras.layers import LSTM

# convert series to supervised learning
def series_to_supervised(data, n_in=1, n_out=1, dropnan=True):
    n_vars = 1 if type(data) is list else data.shape[1]
    df = DataFrame(data)
    cols, names = list(), list()
    # input sequence (t-n, ... t-1)
    for i in range(n_in, 0, -1):
        cols.append(df.shift(i))
        names += [('var%d(t-%d)' % (j+1, i)) for j in range(n_vars)]
    # forecast sequence (t, t+1, ... t+n)
    for i in range(0, n_out):
        cols.append(df.shift(-i))
        if i == 0:
            names += [('var%d(t)' % (j+1)) for j in range(n_vars)]
        else:
            names += [('var%d(t+%d)' % (j+1, i)) for j in range(n_vars)]
    # put it all together
    agg = concat(cols, axis=1)
    agg.columns = names
    # drop rows with NaN values
    if dropnan:
        agg.dropna(inplace=True)
    return agg

# load dataset
dataset = read_csv('pollution.csv', header=0, index_col=0)
values = dataset.values
# integer encode direction
encoder = LabelEncoder()
values[:,4] = encoder.fit_transform(values[:,4])
# ensure all data is float
values = values.astype('float32')
# normalize features
scaler = MinMaxScaler(feature_range=(0, 1))
scaled = scaler.fit_transform(values)
# frame as supervised learning
reframed = series_to_supervised(scaled, 1, 1)
# drop columns we don't want to predict
reframed.drop(reframed.columns[[9,10,11,12,13,14,15]], axis=1, inplace=True)
print(reframed.head())

# split into train and test sets
values = reframed.values
n_train_hours = 365 * 24
train = values[:n_train_hours, :]
test = values[n_train_hours:, :]
# split into input and outputs
train_X, train_y = train[:, :-1], train[:, -1]
test_X, test_y = test[:, :-1], test[:, -1]
# reshape input to be 3D [samples, timesteps, features]
train_X = train_X.reshape((train_X.shape[0], 1, train_X.shape[1]))
test_X = test_X.reshape((test_X.shape[0], 1, test_X.shape[1]))
print(train_X.shape, train_y.shape, test_X.shape, test_y.shape)

# design network
model = Sequential()
model.add(LSTM(50, input_shape=(train_X.shape[1], train_X.shape[2])))
model.add(Dense(1))
model.compile(loss='mae', optimizer='adam')
# fit network
history = model.fit(train_X, train_y, epochs=50, batch_size=72, validation_data=(test_X, test_y), verbose=2, shuffle=False)
# plot history
pyplot.plot(history.history['loss'], label='train')
pyplot.plot(history.history['val_loss'], label='test')
pyplot.legend()
pyplot.show()

# make a prediction
yhat = model.predict(test_X)
test_X = test_X.reshape((test_X.shape[0], test_X.shape[2]))
# invert scaling for forecast
inv_yhat = concatenate((yhat, test_X[:, 1:]), axis=1)
inv_yhat = scaler.inverse_transform(inv_yhat)
inv_yhat = inv_yhat[:,0]
# invert scaling for actual
test_y = test_y.reshape((len(test_y), 1))
inv_y = concatenate((test_y, test_X[:, 1:]), axis=1)
inv_y = scaler.inverse_transform(inv_y)
inv_y = inv_y[:,0]
# calculate RMSE
rmse = sqrt(mean_squared_error(inv_y, inv_yhat))
print('Test RMSE: %.3f' % rmse)

      行以上代码,首先将会绘制训练过程中的训练和测试损失图。 

   
               

       训练中的每个epoch都会记录和绘制训练集和测试集的损失,并在整个训练结束后绘制模型最终的RMSE。 下图中可以看到,整个模型的RMSE达到26.496。

...
Epoch 46/50
0s - loss: 0.0143 - val_loss: 0.0133
Epoch 47/50
0s - loss: 0.0143 - val_loss: 0.0133
Epoch 48/50
0s - loss: 0.0144 - val_loss: 0.0133
Epoch 49/50
0s - loss: 0.0143 - val_loss: 0.0133
Epoch 50/50
0s - loss: 0.0144 - val_loss: 0.0133
Test RMSE: 26.496
  • 这个模型没有调优。你能做得更好吗?请在下面的评论中告诉我您的问题框架、模型配置和RMSE。


    更新:培训多个滞后时间步骤的例子

           对于如何根据前面的多个时间步骤调整上面的示例来培训模型,已经有许多人提出了建议。在撰写最初的文章时,我尝试过这个方法和无数其他配置,但我决定不包含它们,因为它们没有提升模型技能。尽管如此,我在下面提供了这个示例作为参考模板,您可以根据自己的问题进行调整。在之前的多个时间步骤中训练模型所需的更改非常少,如下所示:首先,在调用series_to_supervised()时,必须适当地构造问题。我们将使用3小时的数据作为输入。还要注意,我们不再显式地从ob(t)的所有其他字段删除列。

# specify the number of lag hours
n_hours = 3
n_features = 8
# frame as supervised learning
reframed = series_to_supervised(scaled, n_hours, 1)

   接下来,在指定输入和输出列时需要更加小心。我们的框架数据集中有3 * 8 + 8列。我们将以3 * 8或24列作为前3小时所有特性的obs的输入。我们仅将污染变量作为下一小时的输出,如下所示:

 

# split into input and outputs
n_obs = n_hours * n_features
train_X, train_y = train[:, :n_obs], train[:, -n_features]
test_X, test_y = test[:, :n_obs], test[:, -n_features]
print(train_X.shape, len(train_X), train_y.shape)

   接下来,我们可以正确地重塑输入数据,以反映时间步骤和特征。 

# reshape input to be 3D [samples, timesteps, features]
train_X = train_X.reshape((train_X.shape[0], n_hours, n_features))
test_X = test_X.reshape((test_X.shape[0], n_hours, n_features))

     模型拟合是一样的。唯一的另一个小变化是如何评估模型。具体来说,就是我们如何重构具有8列的行,这些行适合于反转缩放操作,从而将y和yhat返回到原始的缩放中,这样我们就可以计算RMSE。更改的要点是,我们将y或yhat列与测试数据集的最后7个特性连接起来,以便反向缩放,如下所示:

# invert scaling for forecast
inv_yhat = concatenate((yhat, test_X[:, -7:]), axis=1)
inv_yhat = scaler.inverse_transform(inv_yhat)
inv_yhat = inv_yhat[:,0]
# invert scaling for actual
test_y = test_y.reshape((len(test_y), 1))
inv_y = concatenate((test_y, test_X[:, -7:]), axis=1)
inv_y = scaler.inverse_transform(inv_y)
inv_y = inv_y[:,0]

        我们可以将所有这些修改与上面的示例联系在一起。多元时序多时滞输入预测的完整例子如下:

from math import sqrt
from numpy import concatenate
from matplotlib import pyplot
from pandas import read_csv
from pandas import DataFrame
from pandas import concat
from sklearn.preprocessing import MinMaxScaler
from sklearn.preprocessing import LabelEncoder
from sklearn.metrics import mean_squared_error
from keras.models import Sequential
from keras.layers import Dense
from keras.layers import LSTM

# convert series to supervised learning
def series_to_supervised(data, n_in=1, n_out=1, dropnan=True):
	n_vars = 1 if type(data) is list else data.shape[1]
	df = DataFrame(data)
	cols, names = list(), list()
	# input sequence (t-n, ... t-1)
	for i in range(n_in, 0, -1):
		cols.append(df.shift(i))
		names += [('var%d(t-%d)' % (j+1, i)) for j in range(n_vars)]
	# forecast sequence (t, t+1, ... t+n)
	for i in range(0, n_out):
		cols.append(df.shift(-i))
		if i == 0:
			names += [('var%d(t)' % (j+1)) for j in range(n_vars)]
		else:
			names += [('var%d(t+%d)' % (j+1, i)) for j in range(n_vars)]
	# put it all together
	agg = concat(cols, axis=1)
	agg.columns = names
	# drop rows with NaN values
	if dropnan:
		agg.dropna(inplace=True)
	return agg

# load dataset
dataset = read_csv('pollution.csv', header=0, index_col=0)
values = dataset.values
# integer encode direction
encoder = LabelEncoder()
values[:,4] = encoder.fit_transform(values[:,4])
# ensure all data is float
values = values.astype('float32')
# normalize features
scaler = MinMaxScaler(feature_range=(0, 1))
scaled = scaler.fit_transform(values)
# specify the number of lag hours
n_hours = 3
n_features = 8
# frame as supervised learning
reframed = series_to_supervised(scaled, n_hours, 1)
print(reframed.shape)

# split into train and test sets
values = reframed.values
n_train_hours = 365 * 24
train = values[:n_train_hours, :]
test = values[n_train_hours:, :]
# split into input and outputs
n_obs = n_hours * n_features
train_X, train_y = train[:, :n_obs], train[:, -n_features]
test_X, test_y = test[:, :n_obs], test[:, -n_features]
print(train_X.shape, len(train_X), train_y.shape)
# reshape input to be 3D [samples, timesteps, features]
train_X = train_X.reshape((train_X.shape[0], n_hours, n_features))
test_X = test_X.reshape((test_X.shape[0], n_hours, n_features))
print(train_X.shape, train_y.shape, test_X.shape, test_y.shape)

# design network
model = Sequential()
model.add(LSTM(50, input_shape=(train_X.shape[1], train_X.shape[2])))
model.add(Dense(1))
model.compile(loss='mae', optimizer='adam')
# fit network
history = model.fit(train_X, train_y, epochs=50, batch_size=72, validation_data=(test_X, test_y), verbose=2, shuffle=False)
# plot history
pyplot.plot(history.history['loss'], label='train')
pyplot.plot(history.history['val_loss'], label='test')
pyplot.legend()
pyplot.show()

# make a prediction
yhat = model.predict(test_X)
test_X = test_X.reshape((test_X.shape[0], n_hours*n_features))
# invert scaling for forecast
inv_yhat = concatenate((yhat, test_X[:, -7:]), axis=1)
inv_yhat = scaler.inverse_transform(inv_yhat)
inv_yhat = inv_yhat[:,0]
# invert scaling for actual
test_y = test_y.reshape((len(test_y), 1))
inv_y = concatenate((test_y, test_X[:, -7:]), axis=1)
inv_y = scaler.inverse_transform(inv_y)
inv_y = inv_y[:,0]
# calculate RMSE
rmse = sqrt(mean_squared_error(inv_y, inv_yhat))
print('Test RMSE: %.3f' % rmse)

      拟合完成后输出如下:

...
Epoch 45/50
1s - loss: 0.0143 - val_loss: 0.0154
Epoch 46/50
1s - loss: 0.0143 - val_loss: 0.0148
Epoch 47/50
1s - loss: 0.0143 - val_loss: 0.0152
Epoch 48/50
1s - loss: 0.0143 - val_loss: 0.0151
Epoch 49/50
1s - loss: 0.0143 - val_loss: 0.0152
Epoch 50/50
1s - loss: 0.0144 - val_loss: 0.0149

     训练集和测试集上的损失绘制如下图所示:

                       

        最后,RMSE测试被打印出来,并没有显示出任何技巧上的优势,至少在这个问题上没有。

       

Test RMSE: 27.177

       我想补充一点,LSTM似乎不适用于自回归类型问题,您最好使用一个大窗口来研究MLP。我希望这个例子可以帮助您完成自己的时间序列预测实验。

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